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基于移相控制的锂电池组双层电压均衡电路
2022年电子技术应用第10期
吴磊威,赵世伟,杨向宇
华南理工大学 电力学院,广东 广州510641
摘要: 单节锂电池的端电压较低,实际应用中往往采用多节锂电池串并联成组来达到电压和功率要求。为避免由于锂电池不一致性而引起的过充、过放、能量利用率低等问题,有必要对串联锂电池组进行均衡控制。提出一种基于开关电感与Star型连接的LC串联支路的双层电压均衡电路,以两节电池单体为一个单元,单元内部由开关电感型均衡电路实现电压均衡,单元之间由Star型接法的LC串联支路的均衡电路来实现任意单元至任意单元的电压均衡,并可以通过调节移相占空比来控制电池单元之间均衡速度的快慢。由于这两层均衡电路共用同一组开关管,减少了开关管及其驱动电路、电感、电容等元器件的数量,降低了成本。仿真和实验结果表明了该均衡电路的有效性。
中图分类号: TN710
文献标识码: A
DOI:10.16157/j.issn.0258-7998.222711
中文引用格式: 吴磊威,赵世伟,杨向宇. 基于移相控制的锂电池组双层电压均衡电路[J].电子技术应用,2022,48(10):123-128.
英文引用格式: Wu Leiwei,Zhao Shiwei,Yang Xiangyu. Voltage equalization circuit based on phase shift control for lithium battery pack[J]. Application of Electronic Technique,2022,48(10):123-128.
Voltage equalization circuit based on phase shift control for lithium battery pack
Wu Leiwei,Zhao Shiwei,Yang Xiangyu
School of Electric Power,South China University of Technology,Guangzhou 510641,China
Abstract: The terminal voltage of a single lithium battery is low. In practical applications, multiple lithium batteries are often connected in series and in parallel to meet the voltage and power requirements. In order to avoid problems such as overcharging, overdischarge and low energy utilization caused by inconsistency of lithium batteries, it is necessary to balance the series lithium battery pack. In this paper, a double-tiered voltage equalization circuit based on switched-inductor and star-structured inductor-capacitor series branch is proposed, which uses two batteries as a single unit. Voltage equalization is achieved by switched-inductor equalization circuit inside the unit, and voltage equalization from any unit to any unit is achieved by the star-structured inductor-capacitor series branch equalization circuit, the speed of equalization between battery units can be controlled by adjusting the phase-shift duty ratio. Because these two equalization circuits share the same set of switches, the number of switches and their driving circuits, inductors and capacitors is reduced, and the cost is reduced. The results of simulation and experiment verify the validity of the equalization circuit.
Key words : voltage equalization;switched-inductor;inductor-capacitor series branch;phase-shift control

0 引言

    与传统的铅酸电池相比较,锂电池由于高能量密度、低自放电率、无记忆效应等特点在电动汽车、不间断电源、便携移动设备等场合得到广泛应用[1]。但由于单节锂电池的端电压较低,为满足电压和功率需求,需要将多节锂电池单体串并联成组使用,由于锂电池不一致性,串联电池组在应用时出现“木桶效应”,导致实际可用容量远低于额定容量,而且容易发生过充、过放,加速电池老化,甚至引发着火、爆炸事故[2]。因此,为提高电池的性能和延长使用寿命,对电池组进行均衡具有重要意义。

    基于开关电容的均衡电路,由于结构简单、体积小、成本低等优点,成为研究热点。文献[3]提出的传统开关电容均衡电路,文献[4]提出的飞渡电容均衡电路,均衡速度和效率会随着串联电池组电池数目增加而下降。为提高均衡速度,文献[5]提出了双层开关电容型,文献[6]提出了链式开关电容型,文献[7]将双层开关电容与链式开关电容型电路结合起来。文献[8]提出了一种Delta型开关电容电路,可以实现任意单体对任意单体的能量转移,均衡速度更快。文献[5-8]都是通过增加均衡路径的方式来提高均衡速度,使得元器件的数量增加,成本变高。文献[9-10]在不增加均衡路径的基础上,用简易的Star型接法的开关电容均衡电路实现了任意单体至任意单体的均衡。文献[11]提出一种基于开关电感和串联LC变换器的均衡电路,明显减少了开关管的数量,并引入移相控制,加快了均衡速度,但其移相时间的计算过程比较复杂,而且仅适用于两个单元的情况。




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作者信息:

吴磊威,赵世伟,杨向宇

(华南理工大学 电力学院,广东 广州510641)




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